Volcanic eruptions are among the most spectacular phenomena in the natural world.
In short, volcanoes arise when the pressure of molten magma underground gets too high and begins to “look” for an outlet. The pressure is created by dissolving a large amount of gas in magma, a large depth (at great depths there is high pressure and high temperature, which promotes the dissolution of even more rocks by boiling magme) In addition, as a result of a rapid decrease in pressure during eruption, all the gas dissolved in magma undergoes expanding, making the eruption even more violent.
Supervolcano in Yellowstone
Probably the largest volcanic eruptions in history were the super volcano eruptions in Yellowstone. They took place 2.1 million years ago, 1.3 million years ago and 640 thousand years ago. They had the highest grade on the 8-point volcanic explosion index scale. The caldera collapsed after the eruption. In the following years smaller volcanic eruptions followed. The last trip took place 70,000 years ago. Seismic surveys have shown that the magma chamber is located approximately 5 to 10 km underground. What’s more, scientists are constantly predicting the possibility of another explosion, for this caldera is monitored by satellites and sensors on its territory. The hot springs present in Yellowstone National Park are evidence of the presence of a igneous chamber near the earth’s surface.
It was the largest eruption in historical times and the largest ever on the continent of South America. The explosion took place on February 19, 1600. The effects of this eruption could be felt all over the world. Dust pollution caused the arrival of very cold winters, the cooling of the climate, and also caused a great famine in Russia, which killed about 30% of the country’s population.
At that time, the volcano released 16 million to 32 million tons of dust into the atmosphere, in particular sulfur dioxide.
the entire economy of the region needed 150 years to regenerate again. In addition, almost all of South America was covered with a layer of ash.